Plumbing originated during ancient civilizations such as the Greek, Roman, Persian, Indian, and Chinese cities as they developed public baths and needed to provide potable water and wastewater removal, for larger numbers of people. Standardized earthen plumbing pipes with broad flanges making use of asphalt for preventing leakages appeared in the urban settlements of the Indus Valley Civilization by 2700 BC. The Romans used lead pipe inscriptions to prevent water theft. The word "plumber" dates from the Roman Empire. The Latin for lead is plumbum. Roman roofs used lead in conduits and drain pipes and some were also covered with lead. Lead was also used for piping and for making baths.
For many centuries, lead was the favoured material for water pipes, because its malleability made it practical to work into the desired shape. (Such use was so common that the word "plumbing" derives from plumbum, the Latin word for lead.) This was a source of lead-related health problems in the years before the health hazards of ingesting lead were fully understood; among these were stillbirths and high rates of infant mortality. Lead water pipes were still widely used in the early 20th century, and remain in many households. In addition, lead-tin alloy solder was commonly used to join copper pipes, but modern practice uses tin-antimony alloy solder instead, in order to eliminate lead hazards.
The salary is comparable to that in some trade jobs, like plumbers ($57,070), electricians ($57,910) and food service managers ($57,250). — Eugene Scott, Washington Post, "The teacher boycotts are a reminder of what Americans often get wrong about ‘class’," 5 Apr. 2018 His great-grandfather was a Sacramento saddlemaker, his grandfather a plumber. — Mike Dunne, sacbee, "Light-handed approach paying off for Sacramento winemaker Craig Haarmeyer | The Sacramento Bee," 28 Mar. 2018 Nichols acknowledges that experts span a broad range of professions, from academics to plumbers and auto mechanics. — John Timmer, Ars Technica, "First thing we do, let’s kill all the experts," 21 Oct. 2018 Prior to his retirement, Joe was employed for over 20 years as a plumber by the town of East Hartford-Board of Education. — courant.com, "Joseph M. McCarthy," 29 Mar. 2018 Repair and installation basics Experienced DIY plumbers should begin by giving themselves a thorough understanding of the appliance. — Roy Berendson, Popular Mechanics, "How To Fix a Water Heater, Or Install a New One," 14 Nov. 2018 The Best Choice for Ordinary Folks Not everybody who uses pliers has the hand and forearm strength of a plumber or an electrician. — Roy Berendsohn, Popular Mechanics, "You Know What Makes a Great Stocking Stuffer? Pliers.," 29 Nov. 2018 In addition to long hours for retail workers, Black Friday is the busiest day of the year for plumbers. — Amina Lake Abdelrahman, Good Housekeeping, "9 Fascinating Facts About Black Friday History," 21 Aug. 2018 In 2015, Homesense Heating and Cooling acquired the building and spent more than $1 million to redevelop it into Refinery 46, a co-working space for home service providers such as electricians and plumbers. — Liz Biro, Indianapolis Star, "Double 8 grocery stores: Here's what they are now," 1 May 2018
I have no problem paying for any service I receive but when Allied Reddi-Rooter came into my home and immediately tell me and them tell me it would cost me 350.00 for them to install a new Rheem water heater (his recommendation) that cost 409.00 I have a problem. If the cost is exactly how Home Advisor indicates then he’s charging 350.00an hour. I did my homework checked with other plumbers and it. Would not take an hour to remove old and install the new water heater. Thank Goodness I did my research won’t be using their services and I will be letting others know what happen to me. Shame on you Allied