Despite the Romans' common use of lead pipes, their aqueducts rarely poisoned people. Unlike other parts of the world where lead pipes cause poisoning, the Roman water had so much calcium in it that a layer of plaque prevented the water contacting the lead itself. What often causes confusion is the large amount of evidence of widespread lead poisoning, particularly amongst those who would have had easy access to piped water.[14] This was an unfortunate result of lead being used in cookware and as an additive to processed food and drink, for example as a preservative in wine.[15] Roman lead pipe inscriptions provided information on the owner to prevent water theft.

Every job is tailored to meet your specific needs and situation; you won’t get a one-size-fits-all solution from us. You will receive an accurate diagnosis of the problem and honest recommendations on how to best resolve it. We take your specific needs and budget into account when tailoring a solution for you. We only carry out safe, proven methods to handle your plumbing issues. We always take into account the safety of your home and the environment. That’s why we only use top-notch materials and techniques to handle your plumbing problems. Our team of experts is focused on providing exceptional customer service from start to finish. If you are not completely satisfied with the job we will do everything we can to make things right. Don’t let a plumbing problem disrupt any more of your time. JD Precision Plumbing Services is ready to diagnose your problem and provide you with the best solution!
When you need a plumbing repair, rely on our certified, skilled plumbers. When it comes to the plumbing system in your home, you need someone you can trust to keep it in top working order; someone who can get there quickly and who will do the job right the first time. BGE HOME is your resource for plumbing service and can promptly take care of any repair, from stopping a leak, drain cleaning, fixing a garbage disposal, and everything in between. Whether your kitchen sink is clogged, a faucet is dripping or your water heater springs a leak, our priority is getting your plumbing problem repaired quickly and efficiently. Your satisfaction is our top priority, so our plumber will keep you informed and ensure we are meeting your expectations.
Turn to the experienced team at our company for prompt solutions to your plumbing issues. Those in need of a skilled plumber in Tampa, FL, can expect immediate assistance from a qualified professional that is both friendly and attentive. We value your time and respond quickly to all residential service calls. If you have a severe water leak or some other major plumbing problem, a licensed plumber is available 24/7. Whether you need a clogged drain cleaned or a toilet replaced, our skilled and friendly team is able to handle it. We take pride in providing high-quality professional plumbing services to residential locations throughout the area.
Sid called ahead and let me know what time he would show up. He arrived on time and quickly determined what needed to be fixed and explained it. He needed to make a few trips out to his truck to grab tools/supplies and put shoe covers on each time he entered the house. He quickly fixed our issue and cleaned up when he was finished. Great service from Sid!

You can depend on Spengler to provide unmatched emergency plumber service and guaranteed satisfaction for your home and business plumbing needs. Our up-front prices, professionalism and friendly on-time service have helped us become the preferred choice for thousands of homes and businesses across the Metro East area including our immediate local area O’Fallon, Belleville, Fairview Heights, Shiloh, and Swansea. Other areas include Collinsville, Edwardsville, Alton, Highland, Granite City, and surrounding Illinois communities. Rooter plumbers in Belleville, IL provide plumbing maintenance including toilet repairs and clogged drain cleaning. Rooter’s and plumbers offer residential  plumbing services that clients depend on for all of their local plumbing needs.
Abacus’ licensed Electricians can troubleshoot any electrical problems you may have and replace or repair items such as electrical panels and circuit boards, electric surge protection, LED lighting, ceiling fans, complex electrical wiring or rewiring, backup or standby electric generators and more. Want an annual electrical inspection on all your lighting and electrical systems? Ask about the AMP Plan that can save you up to 15% on electrical repairs. This plan includes many things such as an annual electrical safety check to make sure that your home is safe and working properly for you and your family. Our licensed electricians will make sure that the electricity in your home is running at maximum efficiency.
Drain Rescue is definitely true to it's name. My drain was completely blocked and not at all functional when I called them. They asked if I needed someone to come out the same day (it was evening). I declined since it wasn't really an emergency, just a huge inconvenience. The plumber came out right on the time the next morning and had my drain fixed in about 30 minutes. The service was excellent and the price was reasonable. I would definitely recommend them to anyone needing a plumber.
No plumber is going to come right out and explain that they don’t have the required license to work for you. So if you know someone who is a great plumber, but they don’t have a license, hire them at your own risk. Licensed plumbers know the local building codes and regulations, have completed a certain amount of hours on the job and are insured. Want to become a master plumber yourself? Here are 28 tips.

Our team offers comprehensive repair and installation services for every element of your residential plumbing system. We also offer emergency plumbing services to fix major problems outside of normal business hours. We’re here to take your call 24 hours a day. No matter when you run into trouble, day or night, somebody will be available to lend you a hand.
We know that a well informed customer is a satisfied customer. This is why we put a priority on educating our customers on the situation at hand, rather than pushing a service on you without an explanation. When you work with us, you will receive an explanation of the problem and what we think is the best course of action. Of course, you will always receive options. If what we recommend does not fit with your current budget, we will present an alternate option to you. This means if a repair is more cost-effective, we will let you know and won’t try to get you to go for a replacement. By having options, you are able to make the best decision for you and your family. You can opt for long term peace of mind, or something more budget-friendly for the time being.You will never find hidden charges or fees on your bill - what we quote you upfront is what you pay, nothing more.
Whether you're unclogging drains with your handy drain snake, installing a sprinkler system or solving drainage problems, Lowe's has everything you need to make your plumbing project a success. From toilets, toilet repair, water heaters and filtration systems to faucets, metal pipes and fittings or plastic pipes and fittings, we're here to help. We’ll help make sure that pipe dreams aren’t as impossible as they seem with the right PVC pipe, PVC pipe fittings, PEX pipe and fittings and pipe connectors. We’ve got everything you need to get your water where you need it with our selection of septic tanks, water pumps, submersible pumps and irrigation pumps. And we also carry sump pump check valves to make sure that discharge water doesn’t flow back into your sump system. Check out our how-to articles and videos for step-by-step guides on do-it-yourself tasks. Get started on transforming your home into a safe, energy-efficient spot for the whole family.
Galvanized steel potable water supply and distribution pipes are commonly found with nominal pipe sizes from 3⁄8 inch (9.5 mm) to 2 inches (51 mm). It is rarely used today for new construction residential plumbing. Steel pipe has National Pipe Thread (NPT) standard tapered male threads, which connect with female tapered threads on elbows, tees, couplers, valves, and other fittings. Galvanized steel (often known simply as "galv" or "iron" in the plumbing trade) is relatively expensive, and difficult to work with due to weight and requirement of a pipe threader. It remains in common use for repair of existing "galv" systems and to satisfy building code non-combustibility requirements typically found in hotels, apartment buildings and other commercial applications. It is also extremely durable and resistant to mechanical abuse. Black lacquered steel pipe is the most widely used pipe material for fire sprinklers and natural gas.
Estes Services offers comprehensive plumbing services in Atlanta and the surrounding areas. As our business was founded in 1949, we have seen every kind of problem a homeowner can have – with that type of experience, we have anything and everything covered for you and your plumbing needs. We offer 100% customer satisfaction, delivered with a tradition of integrity.

It doesn’t matter whether you’ve experienced a leaky toilet, a clogged kitchen sink, or a backed-up sewer line, Roto-Rooter professionals are available to provide 24/7 plumbing services. Even if you don’t know what the plumbing emergency is, you need a 24-hour plumber who knows how to handle it all. We’ll arrive on site quickly to assess the situation and provide emergency plumbing repairs. No need to worry about scheduling after hours plumbing services as Roto Rooter professionals are ready 24/7.

We understand how frustrating it can be to come home to an unexpected plumbing problem. That is why our team works hard to provide solutions you can trust. Our job is to make your life easier, not add to your plumbing problem. You can expect nothing short of exceptional service from start to finish.As a full-service plumbing company we are able to offer our customers the best solutions using the latest techniques and technology. You can be confident that the job will be completed through safe and proven methods. Because our goal is the same as yours: to make sure you enjoy the safety, comfort, and peace of mind you deserve.

Nothing wears on homeowners like the idea of handling plumbing problems. From the water heater to sewer line, let Mr. Rooter Plumbing take the pressure off of you (and put it back in your shower lines). Our plumbers are the most recognized professionals in the world because we’re committed to amazing service and amazing results. In everything we do, our team makes sure your home’s plumbing issues are solved with the most effective and long-lasting solutions.
Tankless water heaters usually cost more to install than traditional tanks, because many homes need to be retrofitted to accommodate the new system. Tankless electric water heaters retail on average between $150 and $1,200, and tankless natural gas water heaters retail between $200 and $1,300 on average. The lower prices ($150-$250) are generally for point-of-use tankless heaters that can be installed to boost hot water in high-demand areas such as the bathroom or kitchen sink. Tankless water heaters designed to heat whole homes usually start under $300 at the low end and go up to $1,400 or more. Pricing for whole-home varies with the heater’s technology and features. Nationally, standard water heater installation costs average $360-$780, but tankless water heater installation costs may range from $400 to $1,000, depending on the work needed. Some perks of tankless water heaters are that they have nearly double the life expectancy of traditional water heaters and are generally more cost-efficient. Homeowners may be able to save $100 or more per year on their utility bills with an Energy Star approved tankless heater, depending on how much hot water they use.
The Pink Plumber truly leads the way when it comes to plumbing services for both residences and commercial properties. Whether you have an emergency, you are installing new fixtures or you just need routine maintenance our expert staff is here to help 24/7. We understand that you depend on your plumber to get to the root of the plumbing problem and provide an effective solution. We provide outstanding client service which is one of the main reasons why we have thousands of satisfied clients.

Need plumbing supplies? We've got everything you need to build an efficient system. Find ball valves for commercial and residential plumbing, filters, filter cartridges and fittings. Looking for an electric or gas hot water heater? We have hundreds, along with all the supplies you need to install them. We carry a complete line of bathroom fixtures, PVC and CPVC tubing. Get all of the industrial plumbing parts and supplies with our inventory.
Pipe is available in rigid "joints", which come in various lengths depending on the material. Tubing, in particular copper, comes in rigid hard tempered "joints" or soft tempered (annealed) rolls. PeX and CPVC tubing also comes in rigid "joints" or flexible rolls. The temper of the copper, that is whether it is a rigid "joint" or flexible roll, does not affect the sizing.[20]
Using a licensed Toronto plumber? This is an absolute MUST when it comes to the function of your plumbing system and the protection of your home. It’s up to you to avoid non-certified plumbers and those who claim to be certified but have no proof. Don’t end up with more problems than you already have. Do your research, choose wisely and confirm the necessary certifications before you hire a Toronto plumbing team. Drain Rescue plumbers are licensed, bonded and insured – and we’ve got the paperwork to prove it! Read more. Read more

As Thanksgiving and the ensuing party of guests approach, there is no better time than now to get moving on improving the functionality of your house. After all, who doesn’t like compliments on their place from friends and family? Now let’s address some of the areas of your home that you can improve just in time for the company. Do You Have a Leaky Faucet? There is no doubt people will be around your sinks on Turkey Day. Whether it is washing hands in the bathroom, working in the kitchen or desperately trying to douse that Pinot Noir out of your favorite holiday sweater, your sink will most likely be receiving some high traffic. There is no better way to find the perfect part to repair that leak than by using our very own Danco x Lowe’s Leaky Faucet Guide! Optimize Your Toilet for Efficiency Whenever there is a high volume of food, some other nuisances come with it. But how do you prepare? Well, thanks to our innovative product brand, Next by Danco, we have the ultimate solution for you. One of these is the Water-Saving Toilet Total Repair Kit! This tool converts your toilet to one of extremely high-efficiency. With drop-in installation, it is a very simple fix to convert your toilet into a two-flush system. With both quick and full flush, you can save a high volume of water when your flush doesn’t really need it! So check it out. Keep Your Garbage Disposal Free of Things…

Estes Services also offers plumbing installation in Atlanta, Georgia, and the surrounding areas.  We carry two of the leading brands in the plumbing industry that are known for being top-of-the-line for quality and efficiency.  Water heater installation is a common service we perform. We carry Bradford White and Bosch water heaters, with a range of models to fit your budget and the capacity needs for your home.  Call and talk to one of our professionals today to learn how we can care for your plumbing needs!
One of the most critical systems of your home is the plumbing system that smoothly carries water throughout your home—when everything is working. When you have a clogged drain, leaky faucet, broken washing machine, standstill sump pump, a malfunctioning garbage disposal, a cracked sink, or an overflowing toilet, you need a plumber. Preferably, you need an experienced, local plumber who knows exactly what they’re doing. Even when nothing’s broken or going wrong, keeping your kitchen and bath areas well-maintained and in good repair can help improve your home’s value—not to mention add to your enjoyment of living there. Keeping up with the maintenance and adding upgrades, such as replacing a sink, faucet, showerhead, toilet, or bathtub liner or wall surround, however, can be technically difficult and overwhelming, and that’s where Amazon.com Plumbing Services, and the plumbers that list there, comes in.

Nothing wears on homeowners like the idea of handling plumbing problems. From the water heater to sewer line, let Mr. Rooter Plumbing take the pressure off of you (and put it back in your shower lines). Our plumbers are the most recognized professionals in the world because we’re committed to amazing service and amazing results. In everything we do, our team makes sure your home’s plumbing issues are solved with the most effective and long-lasting solutions.
Had some scheduling issues recently, which is why 4 stars. Strongly suggest that they get rid of the policy (of which I was not aware) that if you are unable to answer your phone for the "courtesy call" that the plumber is on the way, your appointment gets cancelled. Along with the 4 hour window, this is not customer-friendly. But other than that, I've always been very happy with the actual work done and the overall efficiency of the company
Pipe is available in rigid "joints", which come in various lengths depending on the material. Tubing, in particular copper, comes in rigid hard tempered "joints" or soft tempered (annealed) rolls. PeX and CPVC tubing also comes in rigid "joints" or flexible rolls. The temper of the copper, that is whether it is a rigid "joint" or flexible roll, does not affect the sizing.[20]
Here is an odd problem that I cannot figure out. I am handy with electrical stuff, but this one has me stumped. My small kitchen appliances all work on a single circuit, with 5 outlets. One of those outlets has a 20Amp breaker built into it with a test and resent button (I never understood what the test button is for). I only have a toaster, a floor lamp and occasionally a coffee grinder plugged into the circuit. Suddenly, none of the outlets work. Nothing new, no new appliances, the whole circuit went dead. I noticed when I trigger the reset button, there is an immediate click and it goes out again. I have tripped and reset the main breaker on the circuit board in the garage, nothing. Power gets to the outlet, but it doesn't work and there is no electricity in any of the 5. I un plugged everything. Reset the breaker on the outlet. It clicked again immediately, still no electricity. I changed out the outlet, with a new one with breaker built in which I bought today at Home Depot. Same problem. I tested for electricity, the outlet with the built in breaker receives 120v electricity coming in, but it always seems to be shorted out and does not send it out. I assume that all of the 5 outlets are connected inline, so thinking that if I went one by one, I'd be able to find a short. I opened all of the boxes, checked everything and all looks clean, new, no problems. I completely disconnected the two outlets that are closest to the main one with thereset button and nothing.Help
The water heater is one of the hardest working appliances in the home. With how often you rely on hot water in your day-to-day life, it’s a good idea to make sure that your hot water heater is kept in good condition. That’s what we’re here for! Whether it’s installation, repair, maintenance, or replacement, we can take care of all your water heater needs. Read More
The straight sections of plumbing systems are called "pipes" or "tubes". A pipe is typically formed via casting or welding, whereas a tube is made through extrusion. Pipe normally has thicker walls and may be threaded or welded, while tubing is thinner-walled and requires special joining techniques such as brazing, compression fitting, crimping, or for plastics, solvent welding. These joining techniques are discussed in more detail in the piping and plumbing fittings article.
The median annual salary for plumbers is $51,450. The highest 10% can earn six figures, while those just starting out as plumbers will probably make more along the lines of $30,430. Apprentices bring home between 30%-50% of what fully trained plumbers earn. The more they learn, the more they’ll earn. It is not uncommon for master plumbers to make over $90K.
Our plumbers use high-quality equipment and the best tools or every job. We practice according to the highest industry standards, so you can depend on safe and effective repairs that last. Because we value customer loyalty, we make sure to go above and beyond for every single project or job we handle. From offering quick responses to 10% discounts for first-time customers, we value your business and hope it shows in the quality of work we produce as well as the level of friendly care we provide.
Wall thickness does not affect pipe or tubing size.[21] 1/2" L copper has the same outer diameter as 1/2" K or M copper. The same applies to pipe schedules. As a result, a slight increase in pressure losses is realized due to a decrease in flowpath as wall thickness is increased. In other words, 1 foot of 1/2" L copper has slightly less volume than 1 foot of 1/2 M copper.[citation needed]
Estimating a plumbing job is best left to the professionals. However, our guides linked to throughout this article are the best first step to understanding pricing. Understanding basic plumbing is an excellent second step. Not only does this help you diagnose potential problems before they become costly ones, but it’ll help you understand what a plumber does.

Sump pumps are used to re-route water away from the lowest point of your home's foundation and protect your basement and easily damaged areas from flooding. In most cases, your sump pump is hardwired to your electrical system or possibly plugged into a wall outlet. Because these power sources can often fail in a storm when water damage occurs, sump pumps are typically equipped with battery backup power.


"We just moved to a new house and Luke did an amazing job installing our home entertainment system. We thought we had a simple TV mounting project, but Luke was able to connect all our equipment (some of which was a bit outdated) so we have one seamless audio/visual system. Plus he was able to fix some errors that Comcast had made and willing to jump in and work on a few other small projects I needed done before the holidays. His price was reasonable and in the week since he performed the work I've had 2 people knowledgeble in contracting or wiring compliment the quality of his work."
Pipefitters, sometimes simply called fitters, install and maintain pipes that carry chemicals, acids, and gases. These pipes are used mostly in manufacturing, commercial, and industrial settings. Fitters install and repair pipe systems in power plants, as well as heating and cooling systems in large office buildings. Some pipefitters specialize as gasfitters, sprinklerfitters, or steamfitters.
A plumber’s reputation depends on your satisfaction. As a result, any plumbing service professionals you book through Handy will take their responsibility to you very seriously. They will want to turn up on time, bring the right equipment and get the job done as professionally as possible. That way, they know you’ll leave them a good review and they’ll get more work! To give you further peace of mind, every plumbing repair done on the Handy platform is backed by the Handy Happiness Guarantee. This means that, in the unlikely event that you’re unsatisfied, Handy will work hard to make things right.
"Beginning to end of experience was fantastic! Initial service agent who took my call was friendly and personable. Got me set up for an appointment same day — on a Saturday — no extra charge. And boom, two hours later, Nelson showed up. Nelson listened intentfully, got the picture/scope, got us our quote and we were off to the races. Courteous, fast, clean, insightful, and professional. Thanks, Nelson! "
There’s often an Allen wrench that comes with the garbage disposal. I keep it under the sink. When the thing jams, follow the directions in the manual, and I won’t need to come out. Another plumbing tip, don’t believe the myth about putting lemon peels in the disposal to make it smell better. That will just make it jam faster.  These are the things you should never pour down the drain. 

Bacteria have been shown to live in "premises plumbing systems". The latter refers to the "pipes and fixtures within a building that transport water to taps after it is delivered by the utility".[35] Community water systems have been known for centuries to spread waterborne diseases like typhoid and cholera. However, "opportunistic premises plumbing pathogens" have been recognized only more recently: Legionella pneumophila, discovered in 1976, Mycobacterium avium, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are the most commonly tracked bacteria, which people with depressed immunity can inhale or ingest and may become infected with.[36] Some of the locations where these opportunistic pathogens can grow include faucets, shower heads, water heaters and along pipe walls. Reasons that favor their growth are "high surface-to-volume ratio, intermittent stagnation, low disinfectant residual, and warming cycles". A high surface-to-volume ratio, i.e. a relatively large surface area allows the bacteria to form a biofilm, which protects them from disinfection.[36]
"Beginning to end of experience was fantastic! Initial service agent who took my call was friendly and personable. Got me set up for an appointment same day — on a Saturday — no extra charge. And boom, two hours later, Nelson showed up. Nelson listened intentfully, got the picture/scope, got us our quote and we were off to the races. Courteous, fast, clean, insightful, and professional. Thanks, Nelson! "
When a person has a blockage in their sewage system they often try to fix it themselves by adding an acid or a base such as Drano in an attempt to dissolve or dislodge the problem. These chemicals can get into the plumbers eyes [14] when the sewage is splashed during the repair. The plumbers skin during the repair does come into contact with the sewage water.[15] The owner of the toilet might not report to the plumber they have already tried Drano a highly caustic base .

Most large cities today pipe solid wastes to sewage treatment plants in order to separate and partially purify the water, before emptying into streams or other bodies of water. For potable water use, galvanized iron piping was commonplace in the United States from the late 1800s until around 1960. After that period, copper piping took over, first soft copper with flared fittings, then with rigid copper tubing utilizing soldered fittings.
Our plumbers use high-quality equipment and the best tools or every job. We practice according to the highest industry standards, so you can depend on safe and effective repairs that last. Because we value customer loyalty, we make sure to go above and beyond for every single project or job we handle. From offering quick responses to 10% discounts for first-time customers, we value your business and hope it shows in the quality of work we produce as well as the level of friendly care we provide.
Here’s a little fact: For every three skilled trade workers leaving their industry, there is only one skilled trade worker entering it. This fact holds true for the plumbing industry, as well. According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics website, the employment outlook for skilled plumbers is expected to grow 16 percent through 2026. The average job employment outlook is around 5%-7% which means plumbing is growing much faster than average. 
×